The history of kettlebell lifting
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From history of origin and development of kettlebell sport
The researchers of different countries were engaged in the questions about the development history of heavy athletics and weight sport: Vebster, О. Stein in England; F. Meze in Hungary; V. Mihailovich in Yugoslavia; F. Nuberg in Finland; (M.Aptekar, 1983). In Russia – М. Aptekar (1983), V. Voronin (2002), V. Voropaev, S. Galeev (2001), J. Grinvald (1957), V. Draga (1985), V. Voropaev (1988), M. Pylyaev (1990), В. Stories (1992), J. Shaposhnikov (1982, 1983), and other, in Ukraine – V. Draga (1998), J. Scherbina (1998).
Forming of kettlebell sport in the modern understanding of this term behaves to the second half of XX age. However exercises with burdening in kettlebell lifting humans used as early as antiquity. Priority belongs to ancient Greeks in making of dumbbell that was used for development of force for young people. Dumbbells in weight of 1,5-2 kg were are made of a stone, iron, lead. Except dumbbells hellenes used as apparatuses stone kettlebells and blocks. So, the largest kettlebell which is stored nowadays in a museum of Olympia, weighs 143,5 kg (sizes of it – 68*39*33 cm). On kettlebell inscription was saved: «Bibon heaved up me above a head by one hand» (In. Draga, 1985). Unfortunately, we do not know, how he did it, what conditions of performance in exercises have been defined in partner competitions, but the record should impress. Nobody has repeated this achievement till this day. According to the table of records in the world of Pomeranceva in 1913 the record in a jerk by one hand belongs to George Lurihu (Russia) – 121,2 kg (M. Aptekar, 1983). Paul Anders (USA) track record is just fantastically - jerk by one hand of barbell weighing 136 kg 10-12 times successively (I. Voronin, 2002). However he did not did attempts of performance of this exercise in one repetition. It seems, that the result of Bibona would be surpassed. It is necessary to notice that Arthur Sakson (Germany) has lifted a bar, that weighs 158,9 kg, over a head in one hand, but he did it in the way of twisting, that is considerably rejecting a trunk and helping the second hand an emphasis in a knee (J.Shcherbina, 1998). That is why it is important to know the terms of implementation of exercises.
As it is known, the spirit of Olympia was for a long time devoted to oblivion. Sport Competitions have been renewed only in a XIX-th century. In this time sharply developed these sport movements: football, rowing, fencing, struggle, a raising of weights, etc. Competitions of athletes were spent in Europe for-long before creation of the international organization of weight-lifters. Athletes competitions were: in Paris in 1825, in London in 1840, in Brussels in 1840, in New York in 1868, in Warsaw in 1873, in Vienna in 1880, in Petersburg in 1885, in Munich in 1895 (M.Aptekar, 1983). In 1892 in London was the first World championship on raising of weights. Persistent struggle of American Lui Sira against Evgenie Sando has won American, who was much heavier (about 150kg). (M.Aptekar, 1983; I.Katany, S.Rubinovich, 1997). However, weight forces demonstrations were applied even earlier. So, at the court of Ekaterin II the certain served Al. St. K-in. He levitated of one fivepoods kettlebell easily, juggled with kettlebells, and tore a rope two inches, could stop a mad bull and retain him for horns (М. Pilaev, 1990).
At M. Pilaev we also found the certificate of seaman force of the Russian fleet – lieutenant commander Vasily Lukin. He developed the physical force training with two-pood kettlebells, here executed simple exercises not only, but carried out the most difficult tricks – threw kettlebells up upwards and caught her on the back. Lukin died in the Athos marine battle with turks, of kernel hit. Decembrist M. Lunin (S. Okun, 1985) took a great interest in exercises with kettlebells.
Mass use of kettlebells as a sporting shell for training force was characteristic for Germany freedom motion of TURNERS (Н. Dobrolyubov, 1912). On specially equipped platforms - turnplats - they carried out exercises on a various gymnastic apparatus, lifted kettlebells, bars, bulldogs. Unfortunately, TURNERS movement has been curtailed by the authorities by 1820 and the raising of kettlebells became again destiny of athletes, fighters, circus actors.
Already at this time attempts of ordering of exercises with burdenings, their uses in quality healthy prophylaxis means, entering of physical exercises with burdenings in the general culture of the population are carried out. So, the French professional athlete and trainer Tria Ippolit, the founder of athletic schools in Bruxelles in 1840 and Paris in 1849, practised medicine – treated adiposity exercises with kettlebells and dumbbells. He has offered government of France «nation Rehabilitation plan» (1851), based on employment with burdenings. Offended by indifference of the French nobility, it has burnt all works (M. Aptekar, 1983). Also in a XIX-th century the Azerbaijan athlete Alty Ailih has created original system of exercises with the gymnastic maces weighing on 46 kg. These old oak maces are stored and until now in the Azerbaijan historical museum (V.Drag, 1985).
In the second half of XIX age of exercise with kettlebells were popular among athletes, circus artists, even sportsmen-rowers. So, in recommendations to employments on rowing of 1861 of Vilkins advises in training on land to apply exercises with kettlebells (J. Letashev, 1969). As we see, kettlebell sport took a step outside riding halls and arenas. As an auxiliary mean of exercise with kettlebells today widely used in other types of sport (М. Vakulenko, 1973; V. Voropaev, 1997; J. Duganov, V. Rodionov, 1972; A. Katany, V. Rubinovich, 1997; J. Letashev, 1969; А. Medvedev, 1986; V. Petrov, 1984; S. Semenov, 1982).
Kettlebells great popularity used at athletes-women. In memory of history there were Ekaterina Brombah's names, Pedzhi Knaak, Ketti Roberts, Evgenii Vermke, Bells Dzhiny, Carolina Bauman, Dzhozefiny Blatt, Annas Abs, Maria Loors and many other athletes from Austria, Germany, Russia, England, France, Italy, America – from all corners of light. The professional actress from Belgium Anna Grjuffelen (Madam of the Athlete) acted on arena together with the husband and daughters: broke off chains, juggled with two-poods kettlebells (J.Shcherbina, 1998). In 1905 there was F.I.alder thicket's grant on training with kettlebells for persons of both sexes (M. Aptekar, 1983).
It is also necessary to specify that the sportsmen of that time were not specialized in one some type of sport, taking part and in levitating a barbell and kettlebell and in the tournaments of fighters. Thus, information about kettlebell sport it is possible to find in literature about heavy athletics, about a fight.
About a great deal can tell the sporting shells of that time. It is necessary to say that kettlebells of toy epoch had a different form, construction, weight. In the book of Napoleon Lene «School of gymnastics» (1872) information over is brought about different sporting shells, including about kettlebells. Sportsmen used scale kettlebells, «bulldogs» (heavy ), «jugglers» (kettlebells of certain weight for juggling), «pyramids» (kettlebells of conical shape) and other. In addition, dumbbells was used with the freely revolved pen, with a pen as a ring (I. Voronin, 2002). Fifteen types of kettlebells presents in the book of J. Shcherbina (1998).
It is especially desirable to underline circumstance that the popularity of kettlebell was purchased exactly in western Europe. The Russian sportsmen went out on the international scene of heavy athletics only in 1898. To this time leading part on a dais was acted by the athletes of Austria, Germany, France. By the possessors of records in exercises with kettlebells there were Emil' Foss, Arthur Sakson, Frederic Miller, Louis Yuni, P'er of nursery Governesses, Vladislaw Pytlyasinskiy, Zbyshko Tsiganevich, Emil' Deriats (М. Aptekar, 1983). Unfortunately, many last names of champions of those years did not reach to our days. The world table of records, which contained 40 types of exercises with kettlebells and barbell, was made in 1913, 17 from which belonged to Russia (М. Aptekar, 1983; A. Katany, V. Rubinovich, 1997). The row of labours of the German and French specialists of kettlebells sport goes out at the end of XIX age – manuals on developing muscles and development of force through kettlebells (Garrison, 1902; P. Gross, 1912; Dyubua, 1915; M. Kister, 1879; M. Kloss, 1903; Pfeiferk, 1910). In England complete guidance went out on a gymnastics with kettlebells (E. Sandof, 1900). In Russia the first manuals on developing of muscles with kettlebells were developed А. Anokhinym (1911), B. Leitnerom (1901), A. Shtolcem (1909). Most full information about power exercises, records of force and history of reading with kettlebells presented in guidance of 1916 of I. Lebedeva (G.Vines, 1988). Some specialists name this managing the first textbook on heavy athletics (М.Aptekar, 1983). To the same questions more late works were devoted in Russia: А. Burkov, В. Drobot, 1979; А. Bukharov, 1936; М.Vakulenko, 1973; S. Ermolaev, 1938; B. Pustovoyt, 1968.
Development of kettlebell sport in Russia is related to the name of founder of heavy athletics V. Kraevskogo (S. Filanovskiy, L. Anikin, 1985). Contemporaries fully deservedly named him the father of Russian athletics. In the book «Way to force and health» (1912) student of Kraevsky world champion G. Gakkendshmit dedicates the teacher the special chapter, characterizes him, as a noble man, prominent doctor and teacher.
V.Kraevsky’s knowledge in the field of medicine, psychology, stories of physical training, a technique of application of physical exercises, have made organising abilities its recognised leader in hard athletics kinds of sports and struggle. Hes pupils have organised clubs of fans of athletics in Moscow, Ufa, Voronezh, Revel, Riga, Odessa, Tiflis, Tver and other cities. In the works “A Catehizis of health”, “Rules for people who working in sports» and «Development of physical strength without kettlebells and by means of kettlebells» Vladislav Kraevsky has shown excellent knowledge of history of physical training. He has given special attention to medical gymnastics and has offered the «Scheme of medical-gymnastic receptions». V. Kraevsky's many methodical recommendations have kept the importance and today. Among them – the obligatory medical control over a state of health engaged, a regularity of employment and sequence in loading increase, a versatility of physical development, health strengthening, observance of hygienic rules (in particular a mode of day), refusal of smoking and alcohol. He gave a close attention to formation of skill of correct breath at performance of physical exercises and to methods of struggle against exhaustion.
In 1870, 1876, 1879-1880 years V. Kraevsky drove out in vacation for a border. He used these journeys for an acquaintance with raising of physical education and development of sport in the countries of Europe (Avstrovengria, Germany, Italy, Spain and other). He was interested by possibility of the use of facilities of physical culture for a prophylaxis and treatment of diseases. From Europe he brought the drafts of kettlebells, barbells, equipped in the apartment an athletic cabinet and collected collection of kettlebells, not having itself equal in all Europe (V. Draga, 1985). In addition, V.Kraevsky is the author of demountable barbell of original construction.
So, migrating from Europe, kettlebell sport firmly settled in Russia. The names of champions and record-holders of the world - Sergey Eliseev, «king of kettlebells» Peter Krylov, George Gakkenshmidt, George Lurikh, Ivan Pomerantsev, Nekandra Vakhturova, Ivan Poddubnogo, Ivan Shemyakina - are well known (M. Aptekar, 1983; A. Katany, S. Rubinovich, 1997).
Including of exercises with a barbell in the program of the Olympic games, and an exception from her of exercises with kettlebells (exercises with kettlebells were included in the program of all-round, and also used in place of kernel for pushing on distance) in a great deal defined further motion of history of kettlebell sport. More enterprising Europeans saved adherence to the barbell, and
today kettlebell sport is cultivated in the countries of former Soviet Union (G. Vines, 1988).
The chronicle of domestic heavy athletics is taken by beginning of August, 10, 1885. In this day in Petersburg, first in Russia, was created and the group of hard athletes-amateurs is organizationally designed under the direction of doctor Vladislaw Kraevsky on his apartment. As we marked already, the students of Kraevsky had organized mugs and in other towns of Russia. Separate clubs were united only in 1913 in single national organization is the All-russian union of hard athletes (ARUHA) chaired by Lyudvig Chaplinsky – founder of Petersburg sporting athletic society of «Sanitas». Entered the summer of the same year of ARUHA into the rows of the World amateur union of hard athletes (М. Aptekar, 1983; А. Sparrows, 1981).
The First World War, civil war in Russia have caused a loss to world and Russian sports. The young Soviet republic nevertheless has kept traditions of strong sports power: 27 records from 35 world have been surpassed by the Soviet sportsmen in the championships of the USSR (A.Sparrow, 1981). But it in exercises with a bar. And what to the kettlebell sports? Unfortunately, exercises with the kettlebells have been deduced from programs of the World championships, Europe, Olympic games, the championships of Russia. Last World championship on a kettlebell raising has passed in 1906 in the French city of Lil (M.Aptekar, 1983). The kettlebell became purely Russian shell. Exercises with the kettlebells were used in circus, as an auxiliary shell in weightlifting (V. Voropayev, 1997). A great kettlebell popularity used in rural collectives, in the Soviet Army. So, in 1948 the All-Russia competition of athletes (V.Ragushenko, 1985; V.Rasskazov, 1992) has been held. Sportsmen competed in lifting bars and kettlebells. Competition was spent for the purpose of youth attraction to employment by weightlifting. However the way «through kettlebells in a bar» has not justified itself. By this time weightlifting left on very high level of development and demanded narrow line specialization. Besides, it has been included in Uniform all-Union sports classification (UAUSC) with award of an honorable sports rank «the Master of sports of the USSR». Anything similar was not in kettlebell sports and it was less attractive, than weightlifting on which young perspective sportsmen (V.Voropaev, V.Poljakov, 1988) stopped the choice.
In 50th of reading with kettlebells continued to use popularity for rural young people, fishermen, warriors of Soviet Army and Navy. Competitions were conducted as tournaments of strong men, where it was neither governed nor norms of classifications. However, interest to it, in truth to the folk type of sport, never weakened (K. Adomaytis, 1983; I.Voropaev, I.Poljakov, 1988; Y. Grotto, 1983; Y.ZHivotovsky,1983; Zvyagelsky, 1984; N. Kobelyaksky, 1984; I. Krivopaltsev, 1983; I. Poljakov, 1983, 1984, 1985; I. Ragushenko, 1984; I. Rasskazov, 1992; Y. Romashin, 2002; I. Khitryuk, 1984; I. Shanaev, 1984; T. Goldfinches, 1992; Yurev, 1984).
Would be the big error to think that exercises with kettlebells were popular only among countrymen and military men. In V.Kraevsky mug many outstanding figures of a science, art were engaged: the doctor of archeology and N.Lihachev's history, artists I.Mjasoedov and N.Kravchenko, actors V.Davidov, K.Varlamov, etc. (the Year-book "Weightlifting", 1985). In an athletic club of the pupil of Kraevsky’s E.F.Garnich celebrated personalities were engaged: at-years Ivan Poddubny, writer A.I.Kuprin, doctor-scientist A.K.Anokhin who has become in 1908 by the first owner of the diploma «the Trainer on weightlifting». In a diary of the wife of Lev Tolstoy - Sofia - there is a record that Lev Tolstoy does gymnastics with pood (16 kg) kettlebells. Record concerns 1898 when Tolstoy was 70 years old! (A.Jusin, 1988). In general, exercises with kettlebells for the purpose of a recreation and physical training were used by people of the most different trades – the grain-grower and the professor, the mechanic and the military man, the miner and the seaman (J.Zhivotovky, 1983; R.Zvjagelsky, 1984; N.Kobeljaksky, 1984; A.Korshunov, 1982; V.Krivopaltsev, 1983; V.Parastaev, 1980; V.Pudov, 1985; V.Ragushenko, 1984, 1985; B.Sandratsky, 1982).
Up to 60th years of XX age there was a federation of «Kettlebell sport and heavy athletics in USSR». It is accepted to calculate modern history of kettlebell sport from 1962, when by Union of sporting societies and organizations of RSFSR the rules of competitions were ratified on classic three combat: the press by the left and right arm, jerk of two kettlebells from a chest and snatsh of kettlebells by one hand (V.Rasskazov, 1992). At this time kettlebell sport makes progress on Ukraine, in Lithuania, Tataria, in many regions of a Russian Federation. At the beginning of 70th of competition on kettlebell sport are beyond republican championships. From 1972 meetings of matches of commands of Ukraine, Lithuania, Russia began to be regularly conducted (I. Voropaev, 1997; I. Ragushenko, 1985, 1986; V. Rasskazovs, 1992).
In October, 1977 at session of Committee on physical training and sports at Ministerial council of RSFSR the commission of kettlebell sports is selected, and year after the first official championship of RSFSR on kettlebel lifting is spent. The commission was the initiator of mass competitions «Athletes of Russia» – predecessors of the championships of the USSR (A.Gavrilovets, 1984; D.Ivanov, 1985; N.Kobeljaksky, 1984; A.Medvedev, 1983; R.Moroz, 1982; V.Poljakov, 1983; V.Ragushenko, 1985; V.Rasskazov, 1983, 1984; J.Shaposhnikov, 1983). Progressive popularity of kettlebell sports, necessity of development of uniform all-Union rules of competitions and specifications of kettlebell sports (M.Starodubtsev, 1984) have led to creation of the all-Union commission kettlebell sports at Federation of weightlifting of the USSR. In 1985 the first championship of the USSR on kettlebell lifting with rank assignment «the Master of sports of the USSR» (J.Sand, 1986) has been spent. The new stage of development of kettlebell sports from now is begins. Carrying out of the championships of the USSR and inclusion kettlebell sports in Uniform All-Russia sports classification has served as a powerful push for its development in union republics and practically in all sports societies (V.Rasskazov, 1992; J. Sandal, 1986). Possibility of reception of an honorary title «the Master of sports of the USSR» involved young perspective sportsmen. Besides, many sportsmen of other kinds «found themselves» in kettlebell sports (V.Rasskazov, 1992). As the fact of a full recognition, kettlebell sports has been included in the program of finals of summer Games of the people of the USSR of 1991. For the sake of justice it is necessary to notice that specifications on kettlebell with 3rd on 1st category under the triathlon program have been presented sports in Total All-Russian Sport Classification, since 1969 in section of military-applied kinds of sports and exercises for staff armies of the Military Ministry and KGB (G.Vinogradov, 1988).
In textbooks for the pedagogical faculties of institutes of physical culture methodical recommendations are included on organization of employments on kettlebell sport (А. Sparrows, 1988; А. Medvedev, 1986; I. Mikhaylyuk, 1965). Program on kettlebell sport for sections, collectives of physical culture and sporting clubs went out in 1985.
In February, 1992 on initiative of the Baltic countries European Union of Weightball Lifting was created (EUWL). Except for Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia the representatives of Russia, Ukraine, Byelorussia took part in his activity.
After conducting of championship of the newly independent States in Brest of October, 29, 1992 at organizational conference the International girya sport federation (IGSF), seven countries, former republics of USSR, entered in which, was created.
During many years of EUWL and IGSF worked parallel, in accordance with the plenary powers. In 2007 IGSF was liquidated at the place of registration, in Ministry of Justice of a Russian Federation.
In August, 2007, in decision of countries-member, the official re-registering of European Union of Weightball Lifting was conducted in International Union of Kettlebell Lifting (IUKL). Organization under the new name saved the long-term history and glorious traditions, but considerably extended the sphere of the activity and geography of distribution of kettlebell sport, new countries and new members disembogued in its rows.
Today oficial members of IUKL are National Federations and representatives of kettlebell sport from 18 countries: Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Russia, Great Britain, Australia, Finland, Norway, Greece, Kazakhstan, Ireland, France, Sweden, Denmark, Ukraine, Italy, Poland, Turkey and also international organizations - International Federation of Power Shows-Programs, International Kettlebell and Strength Training Academy. Applications on an entry gave representatives of kettlebell sport from Izrael, Croatia and Slovenia.
In December, 2007 with participation of Ukraine and Byelorussia new International Girya Sport Federation was registered. It was declared, that the members of new IGSF are all former members of the liquidated organization. In September, 2008 at a representative office of 6 countries-members of IGSF in Arkchangelsk the extraordinary conference of IGSF was conducted. On this conference a decision about liquidation of IGSF was accepted. However much guidance of IGSF acknowledged this decision and continues to support activity of the liquidated organization.
A few international organizations, having kettlebell terminology in the name, are the last years created. Mainly, it is commercial organizations, not taking active part in development of kettlebell sport. They are engaged in the questions of production, advertising and distribution of sporting inventory, effective use of kettlebells in other types of sport and their application in the different trainings systems.
Today in international competitions on kettlebell sport, conducted both in official status and in unofficial, the sportsmen of practically all continents take part – Europe and Asia, North America, Africa, Australia. Progress of sportsmen-representatives of new countries, taking part in competitions, is obvious. So, kettlebell sport took a step outside the countries of former USSR republics and in next times subjugates Europe and World.
Growth of popularity of kettlebell sport, expansion of geography and mass character of this type of sporting activity, talks about his interesting future (Y. Shcherbina, 1998; I. Signevich, 2002). World sport experiences time of active transformations today: the amount of olympic types of sport is multiplied due to the once popular methods of active rest (kerling, snowbord, shorttrack, freestyle and other). It is desirable to trust, what test of force, endurance, will and character as levitating heavy kettlebells will become olympic in the near future.
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